Bone Marrow

RonPaulCurriculum 10th Grade Biology Essay

So for today’s science essay, the subject is bone marrow. Did you know that we have two types of bone marrow, if you did good for you, if not then yes, we have two types of bone marrow. Before I get to the subject, what is bone marrow?

Bone marrow is a “flexible tissue in the interior of bones”. So our bones are hollow on the inside, and that’s where your bone marrow is.

Now the two types of bone marrow we have are yellow bone marrow and red bone marrow. Yellow bone marrow stores extra fat, you know how water reservoir is to keep extra water, it’s basically the same thing but we store extra fat or energy. It’s located in your long or short bones. It can convert back to the red bone marrow in severe cases, like blood loss. It slowly replaces your red bone marrow as you grow older.

In truth, babies have 100% red bone marrow. It isn’t until adulthood, where humans have a 50-50 of red and yellow bone marrow.

Red bone marrow produces blood cells, that are important for the body. Cells like red and white blood cells. Red blood cells(also called erythrocytes) carries oxygen in your body. It also has hemoglobin that allows them to carry oxygen and also has a pigment color, which gives the cell the color red.

The two common types of white blood cells are leukocytes and neutrophils. They help your body fight and detect infections or bacteria, and get rid of it.

Red bone marrow is located in your flat bones like your, breast bone, hip bone, skull, ribs, and shoulder blades. It’s also located at the end of your long bones, such as your femur(thighbone), shinbone, and humorous bone(which is the bone from your shoulder to your elbow)

Fun Fact: “On an average, bone marrow constitutes 4% of the total body mass of humans” and “bone marrow produces approximately 500 billion blood cells per day”

In conclusion, bone marrow is an important part of your body. Red bone marrow produces blood cells, that carries oxygen in your body, and also detect and get rid of bacteria and infections in your body. Yellow blood cells store extra fat(or energy) and can convert back to red bone marrow when needed.

I hope you liked this essay! Please comment if there are any mistakes.

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Osmoregulation

RonPaulCurriculum 8th Grade Biology Essay

You know how we breathe air and drink water, but filtered water, not salt water. Then there’s the saltwater fish, they breathe air, but they only drink salt water. For example, salmons, they’re anadromous, they are born in freshwater, then move to the ocean(salt water), then go back to freshwater to reproduce.

But how do saltwater fish live in salt water? Well, they use a process called, osmoregulation. Osmoregulation can let them control the amount of salt and water in their body, which is pretty cool if you ask me.

Saltwater fish drink a lot of water, then they have this extra salt in their body. Extra chloride ions are removed by active transport and leaves the body by their kidneys or gills. And since sodium ions are attracted to chloride ions, it follows it outside the body. And for saltwater fish, they have to drink a lot of water to get enough water for their system.

It’s the opposite case for freshwater fish. It’s pretty dangerous if they drink too much water, they either drink little or no water at all. They urinate huge amounts and it’s very watery. They gain their salt from the food they eat.

But for salmon, it’s different since they live in both fresh and salt water. When they’re in freshwater, they do what other fish do. Urinate a lot, and get salt from food. But when they’re in saltwater, they produce cortisol. These cortisol starts growing chloride cells. And these chloride cell ejects chloride, and when chloride ions are excreted, the salt follows.

In conclusion, osmoregulation is an important part of saltwater fish to have, without it, they wouldn’t be able to live. And I never really noticed how salmons are actually a pretty complicated fish.

I hope you enjoyed this essay, please comment if they’re any mistakes I should change. Thanks!

Breathing

Today’s biology question, “When you find yourself breathing hard, is this due to a lack of oxygen or an excess or carbon dioxide”. It’s due to an excess of carbon dioxide in your blood. You breath harder to get rid of the carbon dioxide in your lungs.

So the physiology of your breathing starts with your thoracic cavity. Your thoracic cavity is protected by your ribcage, and in the bottom of your thoracic cavity is your diaphragm.

When you inhale, the air goes in through your nose or mouth and goes down through your windpipe. Then goes down your bronchus, where it leads the air to your lungs. Then enters your alveoli, where it takes the oxygen in the air into your blood. Then you exhale carbon dioxide.

When you inhale, the muscles tighten, pushing your ribs outward. When you exhale, the muscles relax pushing carbon dioxide out.

Your body also has a feedback system, it regulates your pH blood. Your body goes through a lot to keep your blood pH level at 7, and it’s not good if it drops or rises.

For example, when you breathe hard, that means your blood pH level is low. There’s too much carbon dioxide in your blood and not enough oxygen. So when your blood vessels detect that your pH level is low, they send a message to your medulla oblongata.

Your medulla oblongata sends a message to your ribcage muscles to contract faster and deeper. This makes you breath harder, and when you exhale, you exhale the carbon dioxide in your blood. Your breathing returns to normal when your pH blood returns to normal.

The Digestion Process

RonPaulCurriculum 10th Grade Biology

Diagram

For today’s biology topic, I chose the digestion process. The digestion process is more complex than you think, you don’t eat your food, and then it immediately goes to your stomach. A lot of organs are working to help this process.

.So before you even eat your food, your mouth is already salivating, smelling or seeing the food triggers it. Which activates the salivary glands which make you start salivating.

Then you chew your food in your mouth, which is done by your teeth and tongue. Your teeth breaks down your food by either chewing, crushing, cutting, or grounding, which you probably already guessed, to make it easier to swallow. Your tongue keeps the food between your teeth.

After chewing your food, you would swallow it, and it goes down the pharynx region, which is the throat region. It goes down the esophagus, which leads to your stomach. There is also the epiglottis, which is basically a flap made of cartilage, that covers your windpipe(where the air goes when you inhale/exhale) when you swallow.

If you choke then that means the epiglottis did not cover your windpipe. And when you inhale, the epiglottis covers your esophagus, to allow air to go down your windpipe.

Now once your food goes down your esophagus, it’s finally in your stomach. The stomach is like a muscular bag, it’s flexible and expandable. In the main chamber of your stomach(called the lumen), you produce gastric juice which mixes with the food, it mixes to until chyme is produced.

After the mixing in the stomach, the chyme enters your small intestine. The first couple inches of your small intestine, is called the duodenum. Where chemicals from your pancreas and liver mixes with the chyme that’s passing through your small intestine.

While in the small intestine, it comes in contact with villi, who absorbs the nutrients. And in the villi, there are small capillaries(tiny blood vessels), and the nutrients enters the blood and goes to the liver. In the liver, it detoxifies the blood and then it goes to the heart, cause it’s the most important, then to all the other parts of your body.

The final part of this digestion process is the large intestine. It includes the colon, cecum, and the appendix. The colon absorbs the water from the chyme, digestive juice, etc. The cecum is not really important for humans, but for some animals, it’s where they ferment food. The appendix plays a small role in the immune system.

We still don’t exactly what the appendix is for exactly, some people have it removed because of some problems, and they live fine without it.

Finally the food exits your body, and ends the digestion process.

I really enjoyed learning about the digestion process, and I hope you enjoyed this essay

Poisonous Arthropods

RonPaulCurriculum 10th Grade Biology Essay

So for today’s biology question is if “Poisonous arthropod can provide benefits to human beings” and I think yes, some arthropods may be poisonous to us, but others can actually help us.

First to clear things up, arthropods are invertebrate animals, which means, they have no backbone, instead they have an exoskeleton. And the Arthropoda phylum includes insects, myriapods, arachnids, and crustaceans.

Now to the main topic, venom, scorpion venoms. There are about over 17,000 species of scorpions. And only about 25 have venom that are fatal to us, and adults and healthy teenagers are able to survive if stung. But a child or a sick person, might not be able to survive.

But not all venom are that fatal, some can be useful, for example, the Deathstalker(Leiurus quinquestriatus) scorpion, a dangerous scorpion, it’s venom can actually treat tumor, especially brain tumor. This venom can actually be of medical use, and made to treat cancer.

It also has venom that has enzyme inhibitors that can attack viruses, germs, microbes, etc. but it won’t attack human cells, because we don’t have those enzymes inside the cells.

Other venoms can be taken and turn into anti-venom. And if you’re stung by a certain arthropod, then you’ll be injected by the anti-venom of that arthropod, and it’ll make it better.

So in conclusion, poisonous venom can be turn into anti-venom, that can prevent the venom, and some poisonous arthropod can actually be of medical use and save people.

I hope you enjoyed reading this essay, thank you.

Soil

RonPaulCurriculum 10th Grade Biology Essay

So today’s question for science is “ If someone says, “Soil is just dirt to hold the plant up.” Would you agree or disagree with this statement?”. If you think dirt is just to hold up the plant, well, I’d disagree. The soil has minerals, water, nutrients, that the roots take up to the plant, and keeps the plant healthy.

The soil consists of layers, which are called “horizons” above bedrock, and the one we use most is the topsoil, which you can guess, is the soil on top. It’s important because, the plant roots will grow down and the topsoil should have all the nutrients to let the plant to grow.

The topsoil contains of humus, mineral particles, organic, and inorganic minerals/organisms. Humus is basically what’s left of dead organisms or waste products of organisms, it also keeps moisture while allowing air to reach the roots.

But sometimes, there wouldn’t be enough minerals in the soil to keep the plant healthy, and this is called “mineral deficiency”. You could notice a mineral deficiency when the plant leaves turn yellow, and it starts to wilts.

To fix a mineral deficiency, you could use fertilizer. You can either use chemicals or organic fertilizer. The difference is that, chemicals will start right away, but it doesn’t last long. But with organic fertilizer, it takes longer to start acting up, but it lasts longer.

So in conclusion, soil or dirt, is not just there to hold up the plant, it has minerals that the plant needs, and is very important.

Slowing Down Seed Germination

So today’s biology question is “On the path from pollination to germination, there are many things that will slow down or delay the reproduction of a plant. Describe two or more of these delaying factors, and explain how each could actually be helpful to the plant species”
So there is a lot of things that could stop or slow down germination of a seed. For instances, seasons could be a problem, if the seed was dropped in the winter, then it would freeze up, not letting it germinate. but then after, the seed will thaw and it will grow when spring comes.
Another problem for example, a seed is dropped in a rainforest. As you know a seed needs sunlight, but if there’s tall trees and bushes covering the seed, then it’ll be hard for sunlight and rain to reach it.
Then there’s the nutrients in the soil, if there is a lot of plants around, then there probably won’t be enough nutrients for the seed. Since it will most likely be absorbed by other plants
This is just some examples, there are many others of course, like crowding. When there are 2 seed close to each other, and they will be “competing” for nutrients etc.